Diseases & Conditions
Winning the battle against cancer starts with knowledge. At Lakewood Regional Medical Center, we strive to stay up to date on the latest cancer diseases and conditions — and to share that information with you.
The following information describes various cancers that we may treat, their locations and characteristics
The adrenals are small glands above each kidney that are responsible for the release of adrenaline. Most adrenal cortex tumors, called adenomas, are benign (non-cancerous); only rarely are they malignant (cancerous).
The anus is the rectal opening at the lower end of the gastrointestinal tract through which solid waste leaves the body. Anal cancer develops when malignant cells form and spread from this area.
Bile duct cancer
This type of cancer starts in one of the bile ducts, which are a series of tube-like structures that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile helps digest the fats in food.
Bladder cancer develops within the cells of the bladder, a hollow organ in the pelvis with flexible, muscular walls. The bladder’s main function is to store urine before it leaves the body.
Bone provides the body’s supporting framework. Bone cancer has often spread from somewhere else in the body.
Brain/CNS tumors in adults
These tumors are masses of abnormal cells in the brain or spinal cord that have grown out of control. The main concerns with these tumors are how readily they spread through the surrounding area and how even so-called benign tumors can, as they grow, press on and destroy normal brain and nervous tissue.
Brain/CNS tumors in children
These tumors are masses of abnormal cells in the brain or spinal cord that have grown out of control. Brain and spinal cord tumors in children tend to be different from those in adults. In children, these tumors often form in different places, develop from different cell types and may have a different treatment and prognosis.
A group of abnormal cells in the breast can invade surrounding tissues and spread — or metastasize — to other areas of the body. Due to various tissues found in the breast, there are many categories of breast cancer. They include ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma and Paget disease of the nipple. While breast cancer occurs mainly in women, men can develop the disease as well.
Castleman disease, also known as giant lymph node hyperplasia and angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFH), is a rare disease of the lymph nodes and related tissues. It is not a cancer but a lymphoproliferative disorder, which means there is an abnormal overgrowth of cells of the lymph system that is similar to cancers of lymph nodes.
Cervical cancer occurs when the normal cells of a woman’s cervix change into cancer cells. These changes can be detected with regular screenings.
Colorectal cancer begins in the colon or the rectum — both of which comprise the final section of the lower intestine. These cancers can also be referred to separately as colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they originate.
Endometrial cancer occurs when malignant cells form in the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus.
The esophagus is the hollow, muscular tube that conveys food and liquid from the throat to the stomach. Cancer of the esophagus (also referred to as esophageal cancer) starts in the inner layer (the mucosa) and grows outward (through the submucosa and the muscle layer). Because two types of cells can line the esophagus, there are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
Ewing family of tumors
The Ewing family of tumors is a group of cancers that start in the bones or nearby soft tissues. These tumors can develop at any age, but they are most common in the early teen years.
Two types of cancer can be found in the eye. Primary intraocular cancer starts inside the eyeball, while secondary intraocular cancer begins somewhere else in the body and then spreads to the eye.
The gallbladder is an organ storing bile that aids in digesting fats. About nine out of 10 gallbladder cancers are adenocarcinomas, which means they start in gland-like cells that line many internal and external surfaces of the body.
Also called stomach cancer, this cancer starts in the cells of the inner lining of the stomach and can grow into tumors. This cancer usually grows slowly over many years.
Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors
Carcinoid tumors start in cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system, which consists of cells that are like nerves in some ways and like hormone-producing endocrine cells in other ways. They are scattered throughout the body in organs such as the stomach, intestines, appendix, rectum and lungs.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are uncommon tumors of the GI tract. These tumors start in very early forms of special cells found in the wall of the GI tract called the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), which signal the muscles in the digestive system to contract and move food and liquid.
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare tumors that involve abnormal growth of the cells that would normally develop into the placenta during pregnancy.
Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma) is a type of cancer that starts in white blood cells, called lymphocytes, that are part of the immune system.
Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that develops from the cells that line lymph or blood vessels. It usually appears as tumors on the skin or on mucosal surfaces such as the inside of the mouth. But tumors can also develop in other parts of the body, such as in the lymph nodes, lungs or digestive tract.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also known as renal cell cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma, is by far the most common type of kidney cancer — making up about nine out of 10 cases.
Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer
These cancers start in the lower part of the throat. Cancers that start in the larynx are called laryngeal cancers. Cancers that start in the hypopharynx are called hypopharyngeal cancers.
Leukemia (adult and childhood)
Leukemia is a cancer of the early blood-forming cells. Most often, leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells, but it may start in other blood cell types as well. Leukemia is often described as being either acute (fast growing) or chronic (slow growing).
This cancer begins in the cells of the liver, which is the largest internal organ in the body. It is responsible for the breakdown and absorption of nutrients, the production of clotting factors in the blood and for filtering toxic waste from the blood.
There are three main types of lung cancer: non–small cell lung cancer, which is the most common; small cell lung cancer, which comprises 10-15 percent of cases and spreads very quickly, and lung carcinoid tumors, which typically are slow-growing and rarely spread.
Lymphoma — Hodgkin
Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer that starts in the immune system’s white blood cells, which are also called lymphocytes. It is differentiated from other lymphomas by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell.
Lymphoma — non-Hodgkin
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (sometimes called NHL or just lymphoma) is a cancer that starts in the white blood cells, also called lymphocytes. The condition can be further categorized as having either an indolent (slow growing) course or an aggressive (fast growing) course.
Lymphoma of the skin
Lymphoma is a cancer that starts in white blood cells, or lymphocytes, that are part of the body's immune system. Skin lymphomas (or cutaneous lymphomas) are rare.
Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer that starts in the linings of certain parts of the body, especially the chest or abdominal cavities.
Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by malignant plasma cells. Normal plasma cells are found in the bone marrow and are an important part of the immune system.
Often shortened to MDS, this type of cancer occurs when damaged cells in the bone marrow make defective blood cells. The body destroys the defective cells, which can leave a person with low blood counts. In some cases, MDS can progress to leukemia.
Nasal cavity & paranasal sinus cancer
This diverse set of cancers develops within the mucus-producing cells inside the cavities in and around the nose.
Nasopharyngeal cancer starts in the nasopharynx, the upper part of the throat behind the nose and near the base of the skull.
A type of cancer seen in children and infants, neuroblastomas are made up of immature nerve cells. Most often, a neuroblastoma starts in the adrenal glands near the spine or in the trunk of the body.
Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer
Oral-cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, starts in the mouth. Oropharyngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, which is the part of the throat just behind the mouth.
Also called osteogenic sarcoma, this type of cancer starts in the bones — specifically in the cells called osteoblasts that build and strengthen bones. This cancer is seen mainly in teens and children, although it can also affect young adults.
Ovarian cancer begins in the ovaries, the female reproductive glands that produce eggs (ova) for reproduction.
The pancreas contains exocrine glands that secrete digestive enzymes into the intestines, as well as a small number of endocrine glands that create and release hormones like insulin and glucagon directly into the blood.
This cancer begins in one of several different tissues of the penis. The majority of penile cancers begin in the skin cells; however, other forms can develop in the sweat glands, blood vessels, smooth muscle tissue or other connective tissue of the penis.
These tumors start in the pituitary gland, the “master control gland” below the brain that releases hormones regulating the body’s endocrine system.
The male prostate gland creates some of the fluid that protects and nourishes sperm cells in semen. Several types of cells are found in the prostate, but almost all prostate cancers develop from the gland cells.
A retinoblastoma begins in the nerve cells lining the back of the eyeball (retina). It’s most often seen in developing babies, whose cells called retinoblasts fail to become mature retina cells and instead continue to divide and grow out of control.
This rare cancer is seen mainly in children and teens and forms in immature skeletal muscle cells. It’s often found in the head and neck, the trunk or the arms and legs.
Salivary gland cancer
Salivary gland cancer affects several glands that produce saliva, the lubricating fluid found in the mouth and throat. Most salivary gland tumors are benign (non-cancerous).
Sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that develop in mesodermal tissues such as bone, muscle, fat, nerves, cartilage, connective tissue and blood cells.
By far the most common type of cancer, skin cancer can develop in any of various types of skin cells — from sun-exposed epidermis, to pigment-producing melanocytes, to lymphoid (immune system) tissue in the skin.
Small-intestine cancers develop in the place where enzymes break down food and most nutrients are absorbed. Like colon cancer, small-intestine cancers often begin as benign growths called polyps before becoming malignant.
Stomach cancer is also called gastric cancer. It tends to develop slowly over many years. Precancerous changes often occur in the inner lining (mucosa) of the stomach and can go undetected due to a lack of noticeable symptoms.
Testicular cancer typically develops in one or both testicles in young men, but can also occur in older men.
The thymus gland is a small organ located just behind the breastbone (sternum) that produces T cells, a type of white blood cell, during fetal development and childhood. Cancers of the thymus gland are very rare.
This cancer affects the thyroid gland, which is located below the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) in the front part of the neck. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism.
Uterine sarcoma is a cancer of the muscle and supporting tissues of the uterus.
Many vaginal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that begin in the cells of the lining of the vagina. Others are adenocarcinomas, which begin in vaginal gland cells.
Most cancers of the vulva are squamous cell carcinomas, which begin in skin cells of the outer part of the female genitals. A smaller percentage of vaginal cancers develop in the Bartholin’s glands, which produce a mucus-like fluid to lubricate the vagina.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which the cancer cells create a large amount of protein in the blood, which may reduce or clog blood flow in smaller blood vessels.
Wilms’ tumor (also called Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma) is a type of cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children.
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to be connected to a cancer specialist who can help you. You can also read more about various cancers in our Health Library